(-)-trans –1(delta)- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the major psycho pharmacologically active component of Cannabis, followed by Cannabidiol (CBD) which exhibits an antagonistic effect on THC1 and acts physiologically as a (smooth) muscle relaxator. CBD exhibit strong anticonvulsant activity for 3 from the 4 major types of epilepsy. CBN and CBC shows even to have many therapeutic effects.
THC: -9 Tetrahydrocannabinol , is responsible for the analgesic and psychotropic effect of marihuana. It sharpens the mind, it makes the skin more tender (effects the vanilloid pain receptors), It enhances all sensory functions such as sight, hearing, color sensitivity and increases, as no other drug! the sexual arousement by men and women on (all) three aspects. Cannabis affects cognition and memory, euphoria, sedation and pain (analgesic/antinociception). It ihibits vomiting at the 5-HT3A receptor level. ?Effects: pain relief (analgesic effects, muscle relaxing, anti-epileptic, anti-emetic, anti-inflammatory, appetite stimulating, bronchio- dilating, hypotensive, anti-depressant.
THC: -8 Tetrahydrocanabinol , is 25 % less potent as -9 THC.
CBN: Cannabinol is a breakdown product of THC, during storage (aging) CBN will slowly increase, while the THC spot will decrease (in a stoichiometric manner). It will appear as a violet colored spot right under yellow CBD. Oxygen is the most important factor ?Effects: mild psychoactive; sedative, analgesic; 3 times more than aspirin. CBN is a non narcotic type analgesic like aspirin.
THV : Resembles THC in all effects it provokes. The effects are of lower strength due to a shorter carbon side chain of 3 carbon (propyl side chain) atoms instead of 5 carbon atoms (pentyl side chain) in THC. ?Effects: See THC. All panels favorite cannabis varieties contains always THV! (reinforce the effect of THV? By penetrating more into the CB receptors?)
CBG : Cannabigerol is the first cannabinoid produced in the plant. It is the biogenetic precursor of all the other cannabinoids. It is produced mainly in brench and stem like structures of the plant. CBG is not excreted in the oil drop (resin) on the (stalked) glandular trichome. CBG displays on TL plate a bright yellow spot right above the wine red THC spot. It will induce drowsiness and it makes (in a dosage related manner) one sleepy. The fingerprint will show large quantities of CBG in hashish! and a lot of more cannabinoids compared to marihuana varieties. Some exceptions to the role, some varieties also ?Effects: Sedative effects and antimicrobial properties, lowering intraocular presser.
CBD : Cannabidiol is formed from cannabigerol, it will appear as a bright yellow spot on the TLC plate of your kit, always between THC an CBN. Cannabielson (cannabielsoin) is a breakdown product of CBD and will even so appear as violet-red colored small spots with lower Rf-values than its precursor CBD. ?Effects: CBD is an THC antagonist, that means it reduce (-lessens) the psychoactive effect of THC. CBD balancing of THC’s psychoactive effect may be one reason many patients prefer marihuana to Marinol®. CBD act like THC as an neuroprotective antioxidant. ?18 ?It has recently been demonstrated that CBD also stimulates vanilloid VR1 pain receptors, inhibits uptake of the anandamide, and weakly inhibits its breakdown. These new findings have important implications in elucidating the pain-relieving, anti-inflammatory, and immunodulatory effects of CBD. CBD reduces muscle spasm.and is sedative.
CBC : Cannabichromene always present in all samples tests. For instance, on our laboratory on the International Highlife Hemp-fair Utrecht (The Netherlands) no sample is found without a CBC spot. The purple colored CBC spot will appear on top of the plate (no active groups on the molecule and for this reason the most soluble one in the developing fluid.). ?Effects: promotes the effect of THC and has sedative and analgesic effects. ??To explore the so many therapeutic Fingerprint- Effect relationships of well-defined different chemotypes1 with defined cannabinoid ratios, for many different patient-groups, its imperative to pertain & sustain the existing varieties and explore their genetic potential. ??Goal: Today stat-off-the-art sophisticated cultivation processes are available to ensure harvesting high quality plant material highly consistent in their well defined cannabinoid ratios. (Less than 3.5% S.D.)
Therefore: All the different effects of the fingerprint-effect relationships due to the presents off the individual cannabinoids (and their complicated and not jet understood, combinatorial interactions), originally present in a range of well defined varieties or chemotypes must be documented first before a pharmaceutical company will develop a cannabinoid-based medicine. ??1 varieties characterized by their chemical content. In our case this will be the cannabinoids (cannabinols) In 1992, scientists discovered that the human brain is flooded with naturally-occurring cannabinoids, which they called ‘’anandamide” from the Sanskrit word ‘’ananda” meaning ‘’internal bliss” Latching on receptor sites all over the brain, anandamide play key roles in keeping us healthy, happy, and free of pain. Because of the fact that THC and other cannabinoids has only affinity to the anandamide receptor sites on cells, cannabinoids will therefore induce the same physiological responses as anandamides do. While cannabinoids are common in human and animal nervous and immune systems, marijuana is the only plant known to contain them. A second endo-cannabinoid has been recently discovered and isolated. The compound that latches on this receptor (CB2) is 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG).
CB1 receptors are the predominant brain cannabinoid receptor, located in various parts of neurons in the brain; testis; endothelial cells; and ileum longitudinal smooth muscles1.
CB2 receptors are found peripheral in gut epithelia, in many immune cell subsets such as macrophages (very important in our immune system, macrophages excrete bradykine, a small protein that signal a SOS-response, through the blood stream to the brain and tells it to regognize ‘’pain”. Macrophages also excrete many immuno-modulators). CB2 receptors are also found on the cells of monocytes in the spleen and are also found on the surface of leukocytes. All these cells are part of our immune or defense system and are mediators in killing bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa and cancer-cells in our body; it keeps us healthy. T and B-lymphocytes, NK-cells (neutral killer cells) and granulocytes, key members of our immune system, display high CB2- receptor densities on their cell surface. Receptors are even found on dopamine-regulated neurons (sensing pleasure). This is the reason why a sense of ‘’well being”, mainly induced by THC (–and anandamide), will overcome someone who’s using a Cannabis drug variety high in THC.
Cannabinoids are immune-modulators! ??Because of the complex working behavior of the cannabinoids, many more receptors might be expected to be found. ?The cannabinoids of Cannabis and the endo-cannabinoids (anandamide & 2 AG) shows both the same affinity to the CB1 and CB2 receptors. The ‘’principle of proof” of whether cannabinoids can be beneficial for many ailments, is now evident. Also evident now is why marijuana works like an anandamide.